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Maya people is often called the 'Greeks of the New World' for its outstanding achievements in mathematics, astronomy, art and letters. For the recording dates they used glyphs, carved figures and numbers. Numbers were writhed, both horizontally and vertically. Zero was in their knowledge.
The diversity of civilization is evident in the construction. The city is a place for the Mayans for meeting people, sharing services and material goods. It is not clear how the large stone blocks could be cut with such accuracy, how they were painted and how they were transferred to the site because they did not know the wheel. Studies have shown that the Maya buildings were the most refined architectural monuments in history.
The Maya recorded the movement of stars and planets. By observing the sky created the solar calendar. The calendar consisted of 18 months at 20 days (18 times 20 equals 360). He shared the time in days, the Maya 'kin', the months of 20 days 'uinal', the year 'tun' and a period of 20 years, 'katun'. After the expiration of each katun they prepared a great feast and celebrate the god who represented the time. The ceremony, which celebrated the new year called the Tzolkin.
Months of the year was called Pop, Uo, Zip, Zotz, Tzec, Xul, Yaxkin, Mol, Chen, Yax, Zac, Ceh, Mac, Kankin, Moan, Pax, Kayaba and Cumbo. They must add five more days to get one complete year. During these days, which called Uayeb they ware especially careful not to quarrel, not to fall asleep and not to stumble while walking. They believed that what they are doing these days that it will work forever, so they stayed at home and avoid the hard work.
The ritual calendar, or Tzolkin, consisted of two periods, one of thirteen days, and another twenty. Altogether it had 260 days. With Tzolkin shamans were determined work days in the field and days for the ritual ceremony.
The third calendar or long calculations consisted of a continuous count of days since the beginning of the current era, 13 August 3114 BC. Dates in the calendar have five numbers, where the first sets of nubres marks 400 years, other sets of 20 year, third years (each at 360 days), the fourth number of months, and fifth days.
Tomorrow: Mayan civilization part 3: 2012
Enjoy your time!